Photographic credit: Bibliothèque de l’Institut de France 

Selective directory of watermarks

Created in 2016, this selective directory of around forty watermarks found in the papers used by Condorcet was a preliminary version of the much more comprehensive online directory which can now be accessed in the “Papers and watermarks” section of this website. The latter now lists more than 200 different types of paper, the identification of which is provided by the MUSE database and is regularly updated.

In the initial directory a detailed description of the corresponding type of paper was already associated with each watermark, together with an indication of the document reproduced. The images shown had been temporarily divided into nine categories for educational purposes, rather than following the conventional iconographic classification. Previous stages of our project can be found here in the form of an archive.

Permission to reproduce all or part of the images included in this directory must be requested from the Archives de l’Académie des Sciences (, the Bibliothèque de l’Institut de France (, and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (

Link to the document: Selective directory of postal marks


Last update on Wednesday 6 January 2021 (15:00) by  Nicolas Rieucau



Project director: Nicolas Rieucau. University Paris VIII.
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